Energy efficient residential house in Topki
Time has passed for low-cost energy. Building energy consumption which was not a key factor in the past, has become a dominant quality criterion in project management. Nowadays energy-efficient buildings are becoming the marketing “trademark” for construction companies, while for design-project organization it is an important priority. However, only a few really understand that energy-efficient building is a new step in architecture embracing vivid elements of arts. Engineers realize that designing energy-efficient buildings requires custom-tailored approach and in-depth knowledge in many disciplines.
Experimental designing of an energy-efficient 5-storey residential building involved refined technical solutions in engineering infrastructure development and applying up-dated construction materials.
The project incorporated a fully integrated solution functionally combining energy efficient architectural-planning concept and effective new generation enclosing structures and engineering systems.
In selecting energy efficient measures in designing the house our experts considered the following conditions:
1. 21st- century energy efficiency policy would be based on the technology application of non-traditional renewable energy sources;
2. this residential building embraces a unified energy system, all the elements of which are interlinked- bearing structures, heating, ventilation, air-conditioning and thermo-power supply systems. In this case, the energy-efficient building project can not be introduced as a simple synthesis of energy- efficiency solutions, but should be the result of selecting well-defined engineering solutions satisfying the set targets in providing energy-efficiency and improving micro-climate quality.
Residential building was designed as cast-in-place and precast construction, 5-storey, sectional type with basement and double-pitched roof with heat-insulated roofing.
Apartments are located on 1-5 floors. There are 60 planned apartments. Planning concept of apartment floors is single-type, where 12 apartments are housed on each floor. All apartments have glassed-in balconies. The comfort level is standard (economy class).
Residential building walls are executed in accordance with advanced technology and significant thermotechnical parameters. External wall siding was planned from monolithic foamed polysterene concrete in stay-form from non-combustible cement-magnesium slabs, whereas external wall surfaces extend beyond the external frame plane, excluding thermal bypass problems. Internal walls extend into the building frame, i.e. all columns and cross-beams of external frame walls are completely in monolithic foamed polysterene concrete heated wall. Heat-transfer resistance of construction walls R0 — not less than 9.0 m²•°C/W. PVC windows (6-chamber profile) were installed. Glassed-in balcony as stained-glass window from floor to ceiling as blind wall.
Characteristic features of life-supporting facilities
Heat-supply system source for floor heating and stairway heating is heat-pump system, converting ground and waste water heating. In case of heat energy shortage the heat supply will be transferred from district boiler house. The design project includes using geothermal energy and converting it into thermal energy to heat hot water and for heating supply. Geothermal energy is accumulated from the earth through heat exchanger tubes, installed into the building structure piles. Piles with heat exchanger tubes are industrially produced and available to the construction site. The piles are jacked down in accordance with piling field scheme. Piping from the piles is tube-tied and is tailed to reservoirs. Heat exchanger for geothermal energy collection system is water-glycol solution. Heated fluid from geothermal energy is collected in volume heat exchangers, which include build-in tubing coils to collect the heat from these exchangers. Through the volume heat exchanger tubing coils water circulates discharging heat to heat-pump system.
The project provides heat extraction from waste waters and converting it into thermal energy. Waste waters flow into specific volume heat exchangers where heat is extracted. Heated by waste waters the fluid collects in the same volume heat exchangers. Through the volume heat exchanger tubing coils water circulates discharging heat to heat-pumps and transferring the low-heat energy to high temperature heat exchangers which are heat supply sources to heat water for domestic hot water (DHW) and heating systems.
Ventilation of residential accommodation involves intake and extract ventilation system with mechanical activation. Air inflow and outflow is produced by intake and extract unit with plate regenerative heat exchanger. Air inflow enters accommodations, while air outflows from sanitary facilities, bathroom and kitchen. Exhaust system of ventilation with regenerative heat exchanger: warm air flows through heat exchanger (regenerative heat exchanger) where heat energy is extracted and cold air is heated, then this air passes to the input system of ventilation and further enters the room.
Inflow system of ventilation facilitates installation of air ducts in external building walls to provide warm (heated) air inflow into apartment rooms. Ventilation has a unique patented control system for warm air inflow into apartment rooms.
There are two projected household sewage systems within the residential building. One system collects wastes from toilets and kitchen sinks and the second one- from wash basins and shower-baths. Both systems combine before entering the municipal sewage system. Waste water systems separately sewered system into submain sewer through tie-in to tank. Waste waters from wash basins and shower-baths flows to tanks, then to storage tanks where hot water is up-heated. In the operation floor the main pipe system of hot water supply is laid towards hot water supply extension. During peak hours required hot water supply is from storage tanks installed in hot water heating unit. The water temperature in storage tanks is maintained due to the internal heat exchanger, where heat comes from the waste waters of wash basins and shower-baths. In the case of waste water heat shortage, water from the storage tanks is used to heat water in the heat exchanger.
Federal Law № 261-FL “Energy Conservation and Energy Efficiency Improvement and Introduced Amendments to Certain Legislative Acts of Russian Federation” specifies enclosures (building walls) into 5 categories, highest quality- “A”, as thermo-technical specifications are two times higher than existing normatives and are 50 W•hr/m². This project of residential building has the parameters of 15÷20 W•hr/m², which is 3 times more effective than the predictable ones for the next 10 years in Russia.
The project underwent expertise in state autonomous institution in Kemerovo Oblast “State Expert Administration of Planning Documentation and Engineering Survey Results. ”