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Energy-efficient residential building in Tomsk

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Designated name:  Energy-efficient sector № 4 including 20-storey residential building  № 7 with built-in administrative premises is located in 5 Neftnaya St.

Applying innovation technology in building construction is becoming more and more progressive. This is associated with the fact that  the present economic situation in the country requires rational application of construction materials and energy resources. In Russia there is a constant demand in increasing the pace and volume of building construction and base operational. There are more rigid requirements to the architectural building facade, amenities and costs. The foremost requirements are economically service life, reduction in expenses of energy  supply, following reconstruction and renovation.

Frame cast-in-place building (technology developed by SMMC- Siberian Machine Manufacturing Company) is one of the most-promising trends in design-project and building-construction sector.

Applying frame cast-in-place structures decrease the construction time, working hours and costs.  Using preliminary stress-bearing structures decreases the expenses on steel. Using factory-produced units improves the quality and reliability of building and maintains free layout at the same time.  

Residential building № 7, located is in 5 Neftnaya St. is under construction. New technology is being used in the construction of this building: multi-storeyed (20) frame cast-in-place residential building.

The advantages of this new technology comparable to brick buildings could be the following:

• frame building is 5 times lighter;
• working hours in construction is 4 times less;
• no welding works in carcassing;
• using a frame it is possible to construct a building of any number of storeys, any complexity profile, as well as implementing any architectural -design concept;  
• standard carcassing period -7 floors a month;
• low costs.

The advantages of this new technology comparable to other frame buildings could be the following:

1. decreasing construction costs of building bearing structures, including cost recoverable expenditures due to  extended area;
2. possible underground parking (under the building);
3. decreasing weight of bearing structures;
4. possible application of different local materials for external walls;
5. opportunities in making internal alterations to the premises during design, construction and operation; 
6. best economy of  reinforcement (structures);
7. possible constant control of manufactured product quality in factory conditions; 
8. lightweight of construction and, as a result, no heavy tower cranes with high load capacity; decrease of transport costs; 
9. diversity of elements which can be used in any architectural solution;
10.  precast concrete discharge on constructing  1 m² of  floor area of frame cast-in-place building 0.1-0.18 m³ в depending on the architectural decision;
11. no welding connections reduce the frame assembly, excluding highly-qualified workers.

Architectural solution of building is based on rationality: carcassing technology provides the construction of 3-floor underground parking for 1100 cars. According to the latest data, in Tomsk per 100 apartments there are 70 cars, while in prime residential buildings- 180 cars. There are 291 cars per 1000.  Under conditions of heavy congestion there is a serious problem – inadequate parking places. The proposed parking complex could exclude congestion of vehicles, as well as solving the problem of parking before residential buildings. In Tomsk multi-storey structure parking.

Based on SMMC technology it is possible to produce specific (preliminary stress)  reinforced concrete structures of up to 18 meters, which bear the load of heavy automobiles. The garage “roof”  is a monolithic slab where heavy vehicles can drive on. Exit from the garage into the building is through the vestibule, staying inside. Yard landscaping could be included on the monolithic slab. Underground parking project – the most effective and reliable solution in maximizing territory for increasing number of vehicles.   

The most outstanding feature of such a building is including energy effective measures in project-design and building (4 section): the project includes construction of 2 externally identical block-section buildings. One building will be constructed in accordance with existing construction-building regulations and no innovative energy efficiency solutions. The second one- energy efficient.  As a result there is an opportunity to compare two different buildings and evaluate the most effective solutions.

Taking into account the positive experience in project-design of energy-efficient residential building in Topki our Company decided to design 4-section building based on tested technology.   
Only a few Russian design companies understand the problem of heat loss and realize the  demand in using updated heat-insulated materials, multi-layer wall structures, energy efficient   plumbing and engineering equipment. 

Energy resources are finite, industrial sector is developing, increasing demand in energy resources. Energy-consuming buildings which were not considered in the past, but have become dominant factor in qualitative project-design. In other words, this is not only the question of energy economy, but also ecological and social aspects should be considered, as well  construction sustainability and its influence on the environment.  

Heating system

The project in heating the residential building involves using geothermal energy and converting it into thermal energy to heat water for the water supply and heating system. This experimental  house embraces the accumulation of heat through geothermal field penetrometer by heat pumps, distributed under the building among pile field. To investigate the influence of penetrometers  operating with heat pumps, a well with detectors is installed on the ground under the building which measures the temperature field under the building and around it.  
Geothermal heat is supplied from the earth by penetrometers, installed in special drilled in wells, which is a 25x3.5 U-shaped tube of cross-linked polyethylene. There will be 146 penetrometers with tube-heat exchangers installed under the designed building. The tied pipeline from the piles are tailed to installed tanks Du150, placed in special channels along the exterior building walls.  
Earth heated liquid circulating through pumps flows through heat pump units transferring low potential heat energy to heat exchanger with higher potential temperature which is the heat supply source to heat domestic hot water (DHW) and heating system.    

Heating from waste water

The project also involves heat accumulation from sewage system and transferring it to heat water for DHW and heating system.  The sewage waste water is separated into two systems in the project building.  System accumulating from toilets and kitchen sinks and is conventional termed as “dirty” sewage. The second system is from wash basins, showers and baths and is conventional termed as “clean” sewage. Stacks from “clean” sewage has a high temperature  potential. Heat from the sewage stacks accumulates in special heat exchangers “DANKO-1000” installed in the building basement.

Ventilation

Ventilation of residential buildings involves intake and extract ventilation system with mechanical activation. Air inflow and outflow is produced by intake and extract unit with plate regenerative heat exchanger. Air inflow enters accommodations, while air outflows from sanitary facilities, bathroom and kitchen. Exhaust system of ventilation with regenerative heat exchanger: warm air flows through heat exchanger (regenerative heat exchanger) where heat energy is extracted and cold air is heated, then this air passes to the input system of ventilation and further enters the room.  

Electricity

It should be noted that one basic factor in constructing energy efficient houses is interconnected with using alternative energy sources produced from the surrounding environment. Such energy sources could be wind generator which was installed on the roof of 4- block section, At the same time it is a source of additional electric supply and furthers energy economy. Approximate power output is 100kW.

Conclusions

Large-scale housing construction of modern and comfortable, mainly energy efficient apartments is an important strategic task in Russia. Design and building construction of such houses should comply with innovative technology. Today, it is quite obvious that popular past panel house-building can not be a solution in today's building-construction as it involved heavy insufficient mechanized jobs in factories and construction sites, monotonous architectural aspect of the apartment buildings in different cities, inadequate apartment comfort and mainly, high operation maintenance costs.   

Frame cast-in-place and pre-cast building construction involves low construction costs, high want-satisfying quality (comfort, economic), as well as reliability and sustainability. Carcassing building scheme involves using sophisticated construction materials, and implementation of energy-efficient technology into the design project.    

Widespread introduction of this technology is hindered by insufficient information, and the application of this technology requires highly technical competence and professionalism. Project results not only further the general design theory of cast-in-place and pre-cast building construction, but also solve a set of problems connected with the development and design of new effective structures using energy-efficient activities.